Sitemaps for Search Engine Optimization

What is a sitemap?

It is a file which contains list of webpages on a website to help the search engines to understand the content of that website.  Search engines rely on their web crawlers (spiders) which crawl, access and collect site maps of websites for their search engines.  Sitemap provides links of web pages in a website to search engine’s spider; thus the spiders need not to hunt the individual links of a website.  Well-planned sitemaps ascertain that each and every webpage of your website get fully indexed onto a search engine.

Sitemap is a navigation tool not only for the search engines but to your visitors also.  If there is no sitemap in a website, you may not get that expected rate of conversion, which can easily be enjoyed with a sitemap.  Sitemap helps to understand the site structure and layout of a website to its human visitors also.  A human visitor, if engross and and lost in your web content, the sitemap is only way for him to find out the content or webpage that he is actually interested in.

Do’s and Don’ts of a Sitemap

  • Sitemap should be linked to the Home Page of a website.  The Home page shall be given highest priority value.
  • Sitemap shall have links to specific main pages; small website may link each and every webpage.  It creates suspicion among search engines and confusion among human visitors, if your website has large number of links in your sitemap.  Now, some search engines have started to provided enhanced support to large sitemaps.  In case, there are large number of links, you can create as many sitemaps, as you want, but you should have a sitemap index file which can show links to all these sitemaps.
  • There should not be broken links on a website.  The broken links shall be checked regularly.

Types of Sitemaps

  1. XML Sitemap
  2. URL Listing Sitemap: File name: urllist.txt.gz (if compressed)
  3. News Sitemap (Google XML Sitemap) : Article older than two days shall appear in it.
  4. RSS and Atom Sitemap:  RSS Feed and Atom Feed are great source of communication and particularly not helpful as Sitemaps.
  5. Mobile Sitemaps:  Support Mobile Content including XHTML, cHTML markup languages.
  6. Video Sitemaps: Support Video content and helps to show in Search Engine Result Pages (SERPs).

Though Sitemaps are available in different formats but HTML and XML sitemaps are the best amongst them. HTML Sitemap helps the users to access the specific information on a website and XML sitemaps are the best for Web Spiders (Web Crawlers) of the Search engine to locate the links and content of your website.

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If Sun Again Set

Now, the Sun is again setting;

with fading beams a frenzy knight who shone & lit the dark with awful might

That shine is now punning and the Sun is again on verge of setting.

Shall the dark win the light?

Shall thou live in the night?

‘O’ Sun don’t forget thyself truth of fighting the dark to bring the light

Why leave hope?

though sow those seeds and reap that crop

that Sun again shine – the purely white

who can win over the night;

So the Sun may again set in

Their Brood

I am groping in the dark a light of truth;

The light which can shimmer the future of brood

Round the world kids live naked; not by choice but by fate

Striving for food, poor are many

Faint, dull faces struggle for a penny,

Harder they moil, sweating through toil

Lay on earth having food, cloth dearth

Let’s jump into crimes – songs ever chime

Notice them, save them to pierce dark through

The light which can shimmer the future of brood.

Alas!  Sand lies on seashore

have plenty of water but throats get sore

Tides come through their heart

Settle through eyes with tears dearth

They imagine in dreams for their brood

Gouping in the dark a light of truth

What You See is Not Always True

Once, I was travelling through  a Metro Train and I caught a wrong train, other than that I had to, at an intersection point.  After 10 minutes of boarding, I realized that I’m moving towards a wrong direction. Though, the signboards for instructions are all over there but l did not notice them, believing my perception only.

At times, I realized that my teacher, Mr. Vinod Gupta was correct in saying that our eyes see what they want to see.

I might have lost my focus while travelling on that day and perceived that I was catching the right train.

Have you ever faced similar situation?

If no, I would say that almost 83% of the population face similar situations in their routine life.

Things are not always what they seem; the first appearance deceives many; the intelligence of a few perceives what has been carefully hidden.”― Phaedrus-

We have a common tendency to believe our nears and dears; we can easily notice their qualities but can’t notice their dis-qualities. We feel hurt, whenever our perception is adversely hit and evidences are put forth against that by others.  Many times, when a perception about a leader or any brand of a product is hurt, the faith in them is completely shattered. Such, situations warn us against perceptive vision.

Looks can be deceptive; the face of a person or his eyes can compel us to adjudge them based upon our immediate perception.   The perception can also be lethal, when we decide to jump from a rocky place, dive into the sea, speedy driving on a wrong side even at a narrow road.  Our eyes respond on high precision information regarding dimensions, speed and distance of evident objects and respond accordingly. Perception is identical in optical illusion where we perceive an image different from its objective reality.

So, we cannot believe anybody and anything based on their appearance only, because looks can be deceptive and What You See is Not Always True.



Symptoms of Cancer

Human body is a multicellular organism which consists of 10 trillion cells of different types.  The cells are grouped into specific tissues and organs. The growth, division and production of different types of cells keep our body healthy, whereas their unregulated growth, division and production cause cancer.  It is also described as loss of multicellularity.  Normally, unneeded cells are programmed to die but cancer cells do not follow that programme and keeps on dividing.

World Health Organization observed that 13% of the worldwide population (8.3 billion people) dies each year from cancer.

Types of cancers that caused most deaths:-
  • Lung (1.3 million deaths/year)
  • Stomach (803,000 deaths/year)
  • Colorectal (639,000 deaths/year)
  • Liver (610,000 deaths/year)
  • Breast (519,000 deaths/year)
Symptoms of Cancer:
  • Chronic Inflammation: Chronic inflammation is caused by infections that don’t go away which further causes DNA damage and lead to cancer.
  • Changes in bowel habits : Change in bowl habits or bladder functions is a symptom of cancer.  If such change is observed for more than two weeks or blood in bowl or urine is observed, it is a symptom of cancer.
  • Hoarseness or Cough: Hoarseness or Cough that does not go away may entail to lung cancer.
  • Skin Lumps: A thickening or lump on or under the skin is a symptom of cancer.  However, a painful lump arises suddenly due to accident is not cancer.
  • Changes in Breast: Change in size/shape of breast or nipple and change in texture of breast skin is a symptom of cancer.
  • Changes in Skin: A new mole or a change in an existing mole or a sore that does not heal can be a symptom of cancer.
  • Diarrhoea and Constipation: Diarrhoea and constipation without any valid reason.
  • Pain in abdomen or Anus
  • Regular Blotting
  • Weight Loss
Factors causing cancers:
  • Use of tobacco products like Cigarette, Beeri (Piliostigma racemosum leaf filled with Tobacco and tied with a string at one end) and intake of raw Tobacco.
  • Heavy and regular intake of Alcohol can cause cancer. It is suspected in few regions of the world that Red Wine reduces cancer, though there is no evidence of its association with cancer.
  • Insufficient intake of nutrients, fruits and vegetables can also cause cancer.
  • Physical inactivity causes overweight and obesity, which can also cause cancer
  • Chronic infections from helicobacter pylori, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and some types of human papilloma virus (HPV).
  • Immuno-suppression:Medications are done to minimise the immunity of the patient during transplant of organs so it should not be rejected by the body.  Less immunity did not fight off infections and failed to detect and destroy cancer cells.
  • Radiation Exposure
  • Sun Exposure

The treatment of cancer includes surgery (removal of cancer), radiation, chemotherapy.  It also includes hormone therapy, biological therapy or stem cell transplantation.

My Prayer

The storms that frightened me even when I was on shore,
now surrounds, tries to blow and mingle me through its course;

On the shore, I prayed long and long for a port
to stand against all adversities, whether or not there a storm;

What shall I do struggling with the storms;
but to wait for that moment when can I win over the storm.

The Hermit

On the bedding of sea, many waves lay,
tis unhurt, unseen, with inhibitions to sway.
Living their days in peace & calm,
appeal they make in dusk & dawn.
Their temper swings
with blow of shocking winds.
These turn into tides,
through currents on rise.
I also clogged all my doors
to avoid heart sighs & to take respite
from those who can expose
to untrue world living in malice.
Tis not maintained for long.
She closed, opened all the doors
to make dance spirit singing on her songs.
Pierced through small beams,
she made envision my open eye dreams.
Tis not maintained for long.
Alas! my emotions can’t be tested any more.
Lest, avert me ‘O’ my soul,
my dreams have shattered ,
my heart is broken and its pieces are scattered.

5 Steps to Lose Weight

Do you feel that you are overweight or obese? How do you check that? Have you ever measured your weight?  Have you ever checked your Body Mass Index (BMI) i.e.   body weight in Kilograms ÷  height in Square Meter.

Imperial    Metric
Height  ft   in
Weight lbs

Body Mass Index

High BMI shows your high body fatness.  It is a tool to measure your body fatness but it is not diagnostic of your body fatness or health.  High BMI indicates high body fatness.

Body Mass Index
Body Mass Index

Besides, BMI, Skinfold Thickness Measurements (with Calipers, Underwater weighing, bio-electrical impedance, Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and Isotope solutions are major tools to measure body fatness. These assessments may involve  skinfold thickness measurements, evaluations of physical activities, diet, family history, and other appropriate health screenings.

You can lose weight, provided you have commitment to do that with a well-thought-out plan.  You can follow 5 steps to get it started.

Step 1: Make a commitment.

Take a decision and simply commit yourself that you will lose weight by changing your lifestyle.  Many people opt to sign a written agreement for the commitment.  You can also sign a written contract, which can include things like the amount of weight you want to drop, the date you would like to lose your weight by, the change your will bring to your lifestyle, your dietary habits and to plan to become physically active.  Writing down the reasons can help you to  reduce weight.  You can set a daily reminder to make you remember about your commitment.

Step 2: Take stock of where you are.

Please visit to your health care provider, who can check your BMI and investigate the weight-related risk factors that may affect your health.  You can maintain a dairy for writing down everything that you eat daily.

Ask for a follow-up appointment with your Doctor to monitor changes in your weight or any other related health conditions.  It will help you to be aware of what you are eating and at what intervals.  The awareness can help you to contain your eating habits. You should examine your lifestyle, if you are physically active or whether your work or travel schedule is making it di

Fatty Food

fficult for you to remain physically active.

If you check yourself, you may find that you are eating those food items (sugary and oily), which are commonly bought for your kids.  You can avoid these eating habits.

Check around your workplace where you can walk around with your friends at lunch time.   Even a small walk of 15 minutes a day can improve your BMI.

Step 3: Realistic goals.

You should set your short-term as well as long-term goals to achieve.  However, your goals should be specific and realistic.  It would not be realistic to say that  I will lose 40 pounds in two weeks whereas, it can be a long term goal. Now, you can say, ” I will walk 15 minutes, 5 days a week for the first week,” you are setting a specific and realistic goal.

Great things are not done by impulse, but by a series of things brought together.      ~Katy Kancvinsky~

Small steps bring good results in the long run and achieving short-term goal on regular basis keeps you motivated.  Realistic goals are always achievable, even though some occasional setbacks may happen e.g. holidays, longer working hours, etc.

Remember, small changes every day can lead to big results in the long run. Also remember that realistic goals are achievable goals. By achieving your short-term goals day-by-day, you’ll feel good about your progress and be motivated to continue. Setting unrealistic goals, such as losing 20 pounds in 2 weeks, can leave you feeling defeated and frustrated.

Being realistic also means expecting occasional setbacks. Setbacks happen when you get away from your plan for whatever reason – maybe the holidays, longer work hours, or another life change. When setbacks happen, get back on track as quickly as possible. Also take some time to think about what you would do differently if a similar situation happens, to prevent setbacks.

Keep in mind everyone is different – what works for someone else might not be right for you. Just because your neighbor lost weight by taking up running, doesn’t mean running is the best option for you. Try a variety of activities – walking, swimming, tennis, or group exercise classes to see what you enjoy most and can fit into your life. These activities will be easier to stick with over the long term.

Step 4: Identify resources for information and support.

Find family members or friends who will support your weight loss efforts. Making lifestyle changes can feel easier when you have others you can talk to and rely on for support. You might have coworkers or neighbors with similar goals, and together you can share healthful recipes and plan group exercise.

Joining a weight loss group or programme or visiting a health care professional such as a registered dietitian, can help.

Step 5: Continually “check in” with yourself to monitor your progress.

Revisit the goals you set for yourself (in Step 3) and evaluate your progress regularly. If you set a goal to walk each morning but are having trouble fitting it in before work, see if you can shift your work hours or if you can get your walk in at lunchtime or after work. Evaluate which parts of your plan are working well and which ones need tweaking. Then rewrite your goals and plan accordingly.

If you are consistently achieving a particular goal, add a new goal to help you continue on your pathway to success.

Reward yourself for your successes! Recognize when you’re meeting your goals and be proud of your progress. Use non-food rewards, such as a bouquet of freshly picked flowers, a sports outing with friends, or a relaxing bath. Rewards help keep you motivated on the path to better health.

Herbal and Medicinal Plants

A wide variety of plants-Trees, Shrubs, Herbs-are having medicinal value. I am publishing this article to make you understand about the medicinal Plants, parts used and its therapeutic value in preventing and curing diseases and promoting good health. Ministry of Environment and Forests (India) and State Governments of India are source of the information given in this article .

AAK (Calotropis Procera)

Calotropis procera

Habit: Erect, much-branched shrubs, flower purplish

Distribution: Available throughout India, Pakistan, West Asia and tropical Africa

Parts Used: Root, Latex and Leaf.

Constitutes: α-and β-amyrin, taraxasterol, taraxasteryl acetate, giganterol, gigantin, isogiganterol

Therapeutic uses: The latex and root bark used as an expectorant; flowers in cold, cough and asthma.


AKARKARA (Spilanthes Acmella):


Habit: annual herb, white or yellow flowers.

Distribution: Throughout India

Parts used: leaves and flowers

Constitutes: Spilanthol

Therapeutic uses: If leaves are chewed, it can relieve your toothache and affections of throat & gums. Tincture, made from flower heads, can treat inflammation of Jaw-bones. It increases the flow of saliva and is useful in fever especially during summers.


NIMB (Azadirachta Indica)

Azadirachta Indica

Local Indian Name: -Limdo, Neem, Kadvo Lim

Distribution: Throughout India, Middle East,  Sub-Saharan Africa, West Africa, Australia

Parts used: leaves and flowers

Medicinal uses: A paste of dried inner Neem Bark Powder and mustard oil is (external) used for skin diseases of all kinds.   If you, drink fresh leaf juice of Azadirachta Indica (10-20 ml per day)  cures eye diseases, Intestinal worms and skin diseases and leaf juice of Azadirachta Indica  (4-8 ml twice a day for adults only) cures Malaria.  Its seeds oil is good for diabetes,  hair fall & untimely whitening of hair, old wounds and against snake & Scorpion bites.  It controls “cough” & “Pitta” dosha in the body, purifies the air and keeps away insects & mosquitoes.


ARDUSI, ADUSI (Adhatoda Vasica)

Botanical Name: – Adhatoda vasica Nees Local Name: – Ardusi, Adusi

Medicinal uses: Cough, whooping cough, cold and clung phlegm in mouth, throat, chest or breast are cured by intake of 10-20 ml fresh leaf juice twice a day. It cures T.B, fever, leucoderma and skin diseases. Leaf juice 5-10 ml twice a day with honey is given to increase urine formation and kill worms if present in stomach.


BEELI,  BAEL  (Aegle Marmelos Corr)

Medicinal uses:  Indigestion, Diabetes, eye, throat, ear, skin and nose infections & in swellings due to infection can be cured with intake of fresh leaf juice 10-20 ml twice a day.  If you intake 100 ml juice of ripe fruits of Beeli per day regulates digestive system. Compound fevers, malaria and  swelling in uterus can be cured with use of 50 ml per day  root decoction.  It cures leucorrhoea, T.B, Cough & asthma.  Fruit pulp powder 5 gm twice a day acts as blood purifier. 10 gm of unripe fruit pulp powder twice a day is given to treat diarrhoea.

KIVANCH, KAVATCH (Mucuna Pruriens- Linn.) DC.

Medicinal uses:  Its roots are used as an emmenagogue, aphrodisiac, blood purifier,diuretic, rheumatism, gout, and in kidney stones, however, seeds cures male male sterility, semen count and early orgasm.  Its fruits controls intestinal parasites.


KUTH or KUSHA or POOSHKARMOOL or UPLET (Saussurea Lappa/Saussurea Costus)

Saussurea lappa

Distribution: Himalayan Region (Himachal and Kashmir) at an altitude of  2600 to 3000 mtr.

Medicinal Uses: It is an anti-inflammatory drug, and a component of the traditional Tibetan medicine. The roots of the plant yields aromatic oil, which are used to make insecticides. It is also used to protect woollen fabrics in Kashmir. Its  roots contain an alkaloid, ‘saussurine’. It is used to cure stomach ailments, skin diseases, asthma and high blood pressure.


ALOEVERA ( Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f.)

Aloe Vera

Distribution: India, China, U.S.A., Mexico, Australia, Cyprus, Malta, Sicily, Canary cape,Cape Verde and some of the Latin American countries.

Cosmetic Uses: Its gel is used to prepare creams, lotions, shampoos and allied production because of its gel has cooling effect and moisturising characteristic. It rejuvenates ageing skin.

Medicinal Use: Urine related problems, pimples, ulcers, laxative and anti-obesity preparations.


Himalayan Forests in Himachal Pradesh

Himachal  Pradesh, India is a lush green hilly State in the great Himalayan, which is bestowed with wonderful natural landscapes for the discerning tourist-solitude rest and peace.

The nature bestowed the State with rich flora & fauna, natural & man-made heritage. The State is one of the top five tourist destinations of India.  The people of the State are very humble and pay warm welcome to their visitors.

Approx 60 lakh people, equals to the actual population of the State, from different parts of the world and the country visit Himachal Pradesh, annually. Shimla, Dharmashala, Manali and  Dalhousie are the most favorite tourist destinations of Himachal Pradesh.  Most of the visitors visit regions of Himachal Pradesh but they avoid to visit national parks in and around these regions.  Thanks to the Eco-Tourism Policy of Himachal Pradesh, that helps to preserve 32 wildlife sanctuaries and two National Parks to the State.

Two-third of geographic area of Himachal Pradesh has forests and due to that fact, Himachal Pradesh has one-fifth of the forests of the country. The two national parks are as under:

  1. Great Himalayan National Park: 905.40 Sq. Km
  2. Pin Valley National Park: 675 Sq. Km.


  (Area in Km2 )

Very Dense
Moderate Dense
Open forestTotal


Lahul Spiti138411532147194
Grand total5567332246381507814683

Pheasants like Monal, Kalij and Kokash in the forests of Conifers, Oaks and Rhododendron has given unique flora and fauna to the Himalayan State. The bio-diverse alpine pastures, the pure forest cleansed breezes and the mood lifting natural environment is an experience to cherish and replenish.

I have written an article about Gopalpur Zoo, Himachal Pradesh in Wikipedia also for your reference.